CommunicationsDebatesLab NotesLiving between the linesNotes

Democracy in the Age of Digital Regulation

Many start our digital age with the invention of the computer. The device materializes Alan Turing’s concept of universal machine capable of executing any finite sequence of unambiguous instructions on any data.

Such “universal” capability has political implications each time some digital application supports human interactions.

We know that with words we can compose a near-infinite number of legislative texts from the most emancipating to the most subjugating. The very same is possible with digital devices. We can think up countless algorithms, standards and designs to manage relations between human and legal persons.

Thus, any set of design, data and programming for such purpose involves decisions of social, ethical and political nature.

And once imparted to machines, digital rules and instructions are automatically implemented with remarkable efficiency. Definitely more than legislative texts, regulations and contracts which can easily remain symbolic, gathering dust on shelves.

From the intimate…

Recently, U.K. and U.S. health authorities approved commercial pilots of wireless microchip pills. Those tablets transmit the time we take them or live results of the medical tests they carry out.

We can imagine beneficial uses: helping patients to manage multiple medications, or physicians to fine-tune diagnostics and prescriptions.

Conversely, we can envision contentious scenarios: doctors trailing patients who adjust medication on their own; or insurers suspending coverage for non-compliance to prescriptions.

Who then decides which automatic interactions between whom are permitted or prohibited through such devices? We the patients, with or without our physicians? Health professional corporations through standardized protocols? Pharmaceutical companies? The digital device’s manufacturers? The government agency approving their commercialization? Public or private insurers reimbursing their costs? Our elected representatives through legislation?

It is the highly adaptable effectual communications offered by digital devices that unavoidably opens such unfamiliar questions and issues.

To the global…

Internet has become a key societal infrastructure. However, Edward Snowden’s revelations proved how much it facilitates mass surveillance.

Yet, it is possible to redesign the Internet with default end-to-end encryption and “onion” rerouting of our communications and uses. Such features would still allow targeted surveillance of suspected individuals or organizations. But they would make mass surveillance of entire populations economically impracticable.

But again, who decides? Is it, for instance, the few thousand self-appointed members of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), an international group with no legal status, nor formal membership procedure? If so, where are we, billions of Internet users, in those deliberations that directly concern us all?

We barely are even spectators of these decisions since such arcane stories often escape mass media’s attention.

Indeed, democratic governance of digital infrastructures such as the Internet remains to be devised.

To everywhere

Digital applications work best in integrated standardized settings.

Thus, future “smart” pills’ standards set in U.S. and U.K. could impose themselves as global medical norms.

As much as India’s controversial biometric standards for identification of its 1.3 billion citizens could become worldwide citizens/customers relationships management norms.

We already saw how cottage start-ups such as Google and Facebook rapidly got their undisclosed algorithms to custom-filter contents and relationships of the billions of users we are.

Soon, manufacturers might well leave us no choice but to use “smart” light bulbs that automatically link up to the Internet and our digital appliances and devices. Exactly as we recently discovered that some “smart” TV sets were built to spy on us.

As the “Internet of Everything” emerges, social norms under technical guises will be imposed upon us. Or not. It depends on who decide among all the possibilities offered by technology.

The new legislators

Currently, such digital decision making is increasingly exercised by technocrats, engineers and entrepreneurs outside traditional democratic institutions. All the more easily since they use formal languages incomprehensible by most citizens, processes largely imperceptible by human senses and standards applicable across jurisdictions.

I was a direct witness of one troubling instance: the development of the Quebec Health Record (QHR). Over a decade, the provincial government conducted several public consultations which confirmed a consensus on the long-standing principle of patients’ consent over communication of their medical information. Except that once QHR’s deployment begun, it became obvious that the device did not allow workable exercise of this right.

Hence in 2012, the adoption of a bill abolishing consent when information goes through QHR. It’s now all or nothing: either all care facilities and professionals have access to all your QHR contents; or nobody has.

They were existing or conceivable health records systems that maintain, even enhance, patients’ control over such communications. Unfortunately, once a large infrastructure such as QHR is in place, overhaul becomes quite expensive.

Recently, the Quebec Minister of Health admitted that the 1.6 billion dollars system is a failure, even from a strictly clinical standpoint, and that fixing it would cost at least another billion.

Design, standards and algorithms picked years before by a handful of technocrats, once embedded in costly circuitries and systems can force an entire society to give up on an undisputed fundamental right or principle. Or even on basic public service efficiency.

The democratic challenge

In order that democracy does not wane, but reinforces itself through the digitization of human interactions, we must collectively:

  • learn torecognize whichIT innovationsinvolve some exerciseofsocial power;
  • compel their designersto document such features in understandable and verifiable ways; and
  • democratizetheinnovation processes by deliberating them, eitherinexisting democratic venues or in new, often transnational, ones to be developed.

This requires:

  • better understandingby populations of the social and political dimensionsof IT;
  • internationally networked citizenry from local to global levels;
  • publicly availableexpertise on key technologies and issues; and
  • preferencefor open sources technologies permitting :
    • examination of which social interactions they actually permit,require orprohibit; as well as
    • their modification to democraticallydefined – and changing – needs.

Digitization of our societies has barely begun. Being able to decide about their future among all the many possible ones requires us to renew our democratic culture, practices and institutions.

Lab NotesNotesReading Notes

Reading Note: Capabilities as information system assessment criteria

I am used to consider criteria such as human rights, exercises of power, effects on one or many lives, as well as informatics and society implications for doing social assessment of interpersonal information systems.

After hearing a lecture from Martha Nussbaum, I consider that it would be useful to also include consideration of capabilities. That would not provide brand new criteria, but certainly an additional angle to look at them.

The capabilities approach” is “an outcome-oriented view that seeks to determine what basic principles, and adequate measure thereof, would fulfill a life of human dignity.” (Wikipedia, “Martha Nussbaum“, August 5, 2014)

Nussbaum identifies 10 core capabilities that, in her eyes, should be supported by all democracies:

  1. Life. Being able to live to the end of a human life of normal length; not dying prematurely, or before one’s life is so reduced as to be not worth living.
  2. Bodily Health. Being able to have good health, including reproductive health; to be adequately nourished; to have adequate shelter.
  3. Bodily Integrity. Being able to move freely from place to place; to be secure against violent assault, including sexual assault and domestic violence; having opportunities for sexual satisfaction and for choice in matters of reproduction.
  4. Senses, Imagination, and Thought. Being able to use the senses, to imagine, think, and reason—and to do these things in a “truly human” way, a way informed and cultivated by an adequate education, including, but by no means limited to, literacy and basic mathematical and scientific training. Being able to use imagination and thought in connection with experiencing and producing works and events of one’s own choice, religious, literary, musical, and so forth. Being able to use one’s mind in ways protected by guarantees of freedom of expression with respect to both political and artistic speech, and freedom of religious exercise. Being able to have pleasurable experiences and to avoid non-beneficial pain.
  5. Emotions. Being able to have attachments to things and people outside ourselves; to love those who love and care for us, to grieve at their absence; in general, to love, to grieve, to experience longing, gratitude, and justified anger. Not having one’s emotional development blighted by fear and anxiety. (Supporting this capability means supporting forms of human association that can be shown to be crucial in their development.)
  6. Practical Reason. Being able to form a conception of the good and to engage in critical reflection about the planning of one’s life. (This entails protection for the liberty of conscience and religious observance.)
  7. Affiliation.
    1. Being able to live with and toward others, to recognize and show concern for other humans, to engage in various forms of social interaction; to be able to imagine the situation of another. (Protecting this capability means protecting institutions that constitute and nourish such forms of affiliation, and also protecting the freedom of assembly and political speech.)
    2. Having the social bases of self-respect and non-humiliation; being able to be treated as a dignified being whose worth is equal to that of others. This entails provisions of non-discrimination on the basis of race, sex, sexual orientation, ethnicity, caste, religion, national origin and species.
  8. Other Species. Being able to live with concern for and in relation to animals, plants, and the world of nature.
  9. Play. Being able to laugh, to play, to enjoy recreational activities.
  10. Control over one’s Environment.
    1. Political. Being able to participate effectively in political choices that govern one’s life; having the right of political participation, protections of free speech and association.
    2. Material. Being able to hold property (both land and movable goods), and having property rights on an equal basis with others; having the right to seek employment on an equal basis with others; having the freedom from unwarranted search and seizure. In work, being able to work as a human, exercising practical reason and entering into meaningful relationships of mutual recognition with other workers.”

(Wikipedia, “Capability approach“, August 5, 2014)

This list of core capabilities is non exhaustive. Indeed, it can be enlarged.

For instance, outside welfare economics, one can add other capabilities that are pertinent to interpersonal information system, such as « privacy » as defined by Rohan Samarajiva as “the capability to implicitly or explicitly negotiate boundary conditions of social relations. This definition includes control of outflow of information that may be of strategic or aesthetic value to the person and control of inflow of information, including initiation of contact.” (Rohan Samarajiva,”Privacy in Electronic Public Space: Emerging Issues”, Canadian Journal of Communication, North America, 19, Jan. 1994. Available at: <http://cjc-online.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/796/702>).

A capability standpoint also reveals that such information inflow and outflow are far from exhausting this basic definition. Some “interflow” should also be considered: how, for example, intermediaries such as the Facebooks or Googles screen how one can be in contact with other or not, and how they could engage or not once contact is made.

As well, a capability standpoint can include an informational variation on the Practical Reason core capabilities. That is the capabilities to get, produce, process information to serve one’s own personal or collective goal.

Lab NotesNotesReflections

Personal Lessons Learned from the November 29, 1963 Plane Crash

Very strong and vivid childhood memories.

This deadly crash took place on a Friday night, only a few miles from the factory where my dad worked. One of his colleagues was to be on that plane, but had suddenly changed his mind in the boarding queue.

Plane crash crater site

The next morning, Radio-Canada canceled the broadcast of Am-stram-gram children show as the topic of that week’s episode was aviation.

The following Friday, my father came home driving the prototype of a new model of airport fire truck of which he oversaw the design and construction. I was nine years old and had a brand new shiny red machine fireman at home only a week after a dramatic event where it could have served.

This truck was destroyed on test tracks in order to learn what were the ultimate capabilities and limits of the machine. The latest test was to run the truck through woodland similar to the one where the DC-8 crashed. When the truck gave up, its frame was crooked and the shiny red paint had been completely torn off from its flanks.

It is through many similar experiences that I learned very young that:

  • first, what is ultimately at stake with any technology is human life itself; and
  • secondly, the quest for knowledge almost always involves some form or another of destruction.
Lab NotesNotesReading Notes

Reading Notes : Cavoukian, Ann. A Primer on Metadata: Separating Fact from Fiction

About: Cavoukian, Ann. A Primer on Metadata: Separating Fact from Fiction (Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario, Canada, 1973).

Cover of: Cavoukian, Ann. A Primer on Metadata: Separating Fact from Fiction (Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario, Canada, 1973)

Tweets from Privacy by Design (@embedprivacy) signaled the publication of A Primer on Metadata: Separating Fact from Fiction (18 pages PDF document). As I am currently working on a related subject, I read it at once… and was disappointed. The actual primer on what is metadata is only two pages long, rather minimal, inaccurate and not quite convincing.

Metadata (formal definition):

Metadata is (…) essentially information about other information, in this case, relating to our communications.”

In this case : “Metadata is information generated by our communications devices and our communications service providers, as we use technologies like landline telephones, mobile phones, desktop computers, laptops, tablets or other computing devices.”

Cavoukian, 2013, p. 3

Metadata (descriptive definition) : Metadata includes information that reveals the time and duration of a communication, the particular devices, addresses, or numbers contacted, which kinds of communications services we use, and at what geolocations. And since virtually every device we use has a unique identifying number, our communications and Internet activities may be linked and traced with relative ease – ultimately back to the individuals involved.”

Cavoukian, 2013, p. 3

 

As presented in the document, these two definitions are at odds with one another: the formal one referring to information items about other information items; but not the descriptive definition which is rather referring to information about processes. But computer specialists do recognize many kinds of metadata, even though they might use different typologies.

The few lines entitled “A Day in the Life…” (pp. 3-4) provide a good illustration of how (processes) “metadata created by the devices that two individuals use to communicate with each other can reveal a great deal” about them.

Finally, the section “Metadata May Be More Revealing Than Content” (pp. 4-5) reads more like a series of arguments from authority than as an actual demonstration.

Need for evidenced arguments

Coincidently, answering engineering students in a lecture made at Polytechnique Montréal last week, I had to remind that an information set would be metadata, not by some intrinsic nature, but merely by the context of its initial production and use. Classically, the term data referred to information items that are available (or to be produced) for the solution of a problem or the completion of a reasoning, an inquiry or a research. As soon as one so uses “metadata” (what ever the type), they become “data”. Thus, no longer are “metadata”.

From the very first universal purpose computing machine, computers – and digital devices since – require metadata to work. And they also produce other metadata as by-products of their processes. And from the dawn of informatics, those metadata were at once reused as data.

There is nothing new with using metadata to produce knowledge about people. A classic example is the introduction of the computerized cash registers. As the machine processes the customers’ purchases, it produces clock metadata than can be used to asses the clerks’ speeds to punch (now scan) items, to take payments and give change, to pack the goods and pass to the next customers.

Anytime an operation is linkable to a human user, the operations’ metadata can be exploited as data about this human user (and anyone related to that person). Videogames provides good examples of how the same outputs can simultaneously be processes’ metadata and players’ data.

These relative artificiality and mutability of the distinction between data and metadata become obvious when one considers (as these tweet structure maps show) that making a tweet of a maximum of 140 characters can easily require the production of between 500 and 1000 characters of metadata which include… the tweet message itself !

And indeed, the “metadata”/”data” relative weights in todays’ particular instances can often be startling… if one can still distinguish between the two.

Also, need to make evidences evident

How come that there is no readily available button on which I could click to see the whole tweet actually produced, not only the message I wrote and sent?

Or how come that there is no readily available command to display what information my mobile phone service actually produces minute by minute?

And as I pointed out to Polytechnique’s engineering students: if NSA’s work is essentially done with computerized devices, how come Congress does not have a dashboard that harness the metadata about what kinds of operations NSA actually does? If such metadata would have been available, could Director James Clapper, been able to lie so easily about NSA’s operations before Congress? And Congress only discovering it through documents leaked by a whistleblower? After all, would it not be only metadata about systems’ uses, not data from the individual intelligence operations themselves? ;-)

Such are questions of critical and practical political significance. Because they breed other questions about who decides the production of such information. About its uses. About who control them. About their consequences. And so on. Of critical and practical significance also because they could turn a defensive stance into one of political affirmation. Such questions stem from an understanding of the nature of what information and information processing are. This is why it is so important to deepen and strengthen such understanding as well as to popularize it and make it useable by all citizens.

So if you know any instructive work on the subject…

Lab NotesNotesReading Notes

A Few Notes from Luciano Floridi’s book The philosophy of information

From : Floridi, Luciano. The philosophy of information (Oxford [England]; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).

 

Good problem / Open problem / Reseach Method

« Good problems are the driving force of any intellectual pursuit. Being able to do valuable research hugely depends on having good taste in choosing them. Now, for Hilbert, a good problem is a problem rich in consequences, clearly defined, easy to understand and difficult to solve, but still accessible. Again, it is worth learning the lesson, with a further qualification. We saw in chapter one that genuine philosophical problems should also be intrinsically open, that is, they should allow for genuine, reasonable, informed differences of opinion. Open problems call for explicit solutions, (p. 29 ) which facilitate a critical approach and hence empower the interlocutor. »

Floridi (2011) p. 28-29

 

Good problem / Reseach Method

« Hilbert thought that mathematical research has a historical nature and that mathematical problems often have their initial roots in historical circumstances, in the ‘ever-recurring interplay between thought and experience’. Philosophical problems are no exception. Like mathematical problems, they are not contingent but timely. »

Floridi (2011) p. 28

 

Solution / Explicitness / Rigor / Research Method

The more explicit and rigorous a solution is, the more easily it is criticizable. Logic is only apparently brusque. Its advice is as blunt as that of a good friend. The real trap is the false friendliness of sloppy thinking and obscure oracles. Their alluring rhetoric undermines the very possibility of disagreement, lulling the readers’ reason to sleep.

Floridi (2011) p. 28

 

Information / Epistemology

« The informational circle: How can information be assessed? If information cannot be transcended but can only be checked against further information—if it is information all the way up and all the way down—what does this tell us about our knowledge of the world?

The informational circle is reminiscent of the hermeneutical circle. It underpins the modern debate on the foundation of epistemology and the acceptability of some form of realism in the philosophy of science, according to which our information about the world captures something of the way the world is (Floridi (1996)). »

Floridi (2011) p. 40

 

Information / Epistemology / Model / Information Modelling / Reseach Method

« The semantic view of science: Is science reducible to information modelling?

The semantic approach to scientific theories (…), argues that

scientific reasoning is to a large extent model-based reasoning. It is models almost all the way up and models almost all the way down. (Giere (1999), p. 56).

Theories do not make contact with phenomena directly, but rather higher models are brought into contact with other, lower models (see chapter nine). These are themselves theoretical conceptualizations of empirical systems, which constitute an object being modelled as an object of scientific research. Giere (1988) takes most scientific models of interest to be non-linguistic abstract objects. Models, however, are the medium, not the message. Is information the (possibly non-linguistic) content of these models? How are informational models (semantically, cognitively, and instrumentally) related to the conceptualizations that constitute their empirical references? »

Floridi (2011) p. 41

 

Data / Information / Materialism

« Wiener’s problem: What is the ontological status of information?

Most people agree that there is no information without (data) representation. This principle is often interpreted materialistically, as advocating the impossibility of physically disembodied information, through the equation ‘representation = physical implementation’. (…) Here, let me stress that the problem is whether the informational might be an independent ontological category, different from the physical/material and the mental, assuming one could draw this Cartesian distinction. Wiener, for example, thought that

Information is information, not matter or energy. No materialism which does not admit this can survive at the present day. (Wiener (1948), p. 132)

If the informational is not an independent ontological category, to which category is it reducible? If it is an independent ontological category, how is it related to the physical/material and to the mental? »

Floridi (2011) p. 42

ExperimentsInformation & LawLab NotesNotesReflections

Abandoning the concept (and illustration) of “information collection” for that of “production”

In its original 1990 version, the theory of interpersonal information processes refers to collection as one of information’s logical phases. The term collection is borrowed from protection of personal information law, which itself borrowed it from the lexicon of public and private bureaucracies. However, the word collection (action to pick a pre-existing object) masks the presence of a production of new informational artifacts. The result is that several implications are veiled, particularly those related to the intellectual property of the new information objects and to their pragmatic dimension.

The question then is: should collection really be considered as a logical phase of information? Or is it the chosen term that is inadequate? (more…)

"Beyond Privacy" ProjectExperimentsInformation & LawLab NotesNotes

My New Major Research Project

Since January 2013, I started a new research project. A big project that will monopolize most of my energy in the coming years. And on the developments of which I will report on this site.

Its title is Beyond “Privacy”: General Theory of Interpersonal Information Processes.

This project’s aims it to equip actors, practitioners and researchers with tools for identifying and resolving issues and legal issues, social and ethical issues raised by the interpersonal information applications and systems that are increasingly present in our lives.

At this stage, I’m still setting up the project whose objectives are summarized below.

See you soon.

 

Objectives

1. to test the concepts and propositions of the original version (1990) of the legal theory of interpersonal information processes, including:

  • the intra-theoretical consistency of its concepts, definitions and propositions;
  • its trans-theoretical consistency with the Portrait of Interpersonal Information Processes visual modelling;
  • the empirical applicability of its statements to the analysis of interpersonal information handlings;
  • the empirical adequacy of its statements to reveal the legal, social and ethical implications of interpersonal information handlings;
  • its inter-theoretical correspondence with other models and approaches used by practitioners for analyzing information systems;
  • its inter-theoretical correspondence with other theories dealing with the same objects that have been developed in law, philosophy, anthropology, linguistics, computer science, information management, IT & Society Studies.

2. to verify the realization of the predictions of the 1990 theory about the coevolution of law and process interpersonal information;

3. to produce from the results of the two previous objectives:

  • a new trans-disciplinary version of the theory of interpersonal information processes, and
  • a corresponding update the Portrait of Interpersonal Information Processes visual modelling;

4. to develop additional analytical tools or manuals that could help researchers, practitioners and stakeholders to make use of the theory and the visual modeling.

"Beyond Privacy" ProjectCommunicationsLab NotesLiving between the linesNotesReading Notes

2012 Map of a Twitter Status Object for Dummies

Provisional book cover: Title :

This post is about the “Beyond Privacy” Project: LIVING BETWEEN THE LINES information society through our personal information.

As this is an open work-in-progress book drafting project,

please do not hesitate to comment!

Every input is precious to help improve it.

Many probably have seen the Map of a Twitter status object below. Produced by Raffi Krikorian, from Twitter’s engineering department, this one-page chart quickly became popular. This was because it illustrated in a single image that a Twitter message was not a mere line of text up to 140 characters.

Although this document and its annotations are addressed primarily to API developers, it had a strong educational value. I have used it often. You had to see how wide the eyes of information law students opened in surprise and curiosity! That chart made easy to pass on the message we must do our homework when assessing informational practice. That we not be satisfied with only the visible information items and processes. That we must understand what actually happens in the black box. Even ask a hand to computer technologists.

I was writing a new book chapter entitled “Production Inputs“. It explains that handling of information objects allows us to produce new ones. However, this task requires, often without our realizing, the production of even further information objects, either to carry it out, or to describe it. The example of the 140 characters tweet which, in fact, features thousands of characters of code lines seems great to illustrate this point.

So I undertook to produce a new chart that would be updated, clearer as well as, more easily readable and understandable by non-specialists.

Partial List of Information Items Linked to a Tweet (small)

The result is this chart spreading over two pages. But it would have taken three to be exhaustive. Please, click the following to access :

Among many things, this exercise revealed to me the existence of fields for blocking messages or entire users’ accounts at the request of public authorities, of holders copyright, or of others. It also revealed that this map is not only that of a tweet, but also of all the information items coproduced with it. To the extent that all these items are available in practice, the distinction is perhaps only one of nuance. From a pedagogical point of view however, this is worth mentioning.

Further revelation, I also found a few syntax, description and field’s status typos in the original chart from Krikorian. Far from being a Twitter engineer, I would be very grateful if you would signal to me any typo or error in the new chart proposed here.

"Beyond Privacy" ProjectCommunicationsLab NotesLiving between the linesNotes

“Beyond Privacy” Project: The Mandatory Multiplication of Electromagnetic Information Loaves

 

Provisional book cover: Title : "Living Between The Lines: Information Society Through Our Personal Information" Mentions: "Beyond Privacy Project : An open work-in-progress"

This post is about the “Beyond Privacy” Project: LIVING BETWEEN THE LINES information society through our personal information.

As this is an open work-in-progress book drafting project,

please do not hesitate to comment!

Every input is precious to help improve it.

 

Utility vehicles

 

Information objects allow us to interact across time and space. This capability varies depending on the physical support. The difference becomes obvious between solid matter and electromagnetic waves.

How would it feel for you to pull out a banknote and burn it?

If a twinge of lost, the source is not the combustion of a fraction of a gram of matter. If pleasurable excitement, it does not result that much from the momentary flame.

The emotion comes mainly from the irreversible loss of information items. Not just any ones! The vaporized in smoke writing conveyed a unit of value that we could share with others.

The destroyed information allowed us to get from other persons a good or a service. Or to repay them a debt. Or to hand them an assistance. Or offer them a gift.

Also vanished is the ability to offer to ourselves a gift.

Hence the emotion produced. We have forever destroyed information items representing a fragment of power in the human world.
Cover of the Voyager probes' golden disk. A circular plate on which are engraved the instructions to play the disk and a map of the location of the solar system.

(more…)

"Beyond Privacy" ProjectCommunicationsLab NotesLiving between the linesNotes

“Beyond Privacy” Project: A Few Decisions Following Your Comments

Provisional book cover: Title :

This post is about the “Beyond Privacy” Project: LIVING BETWEEN THE LINES information society through our personal information.

As this is an open work-in-progress book drafting project,

please do not hesitate to comment!

Every input is precious to help improve it.

Firstly, a big thank you for the comments received so far!

Noteworthy detail: people who have commented so far all are women. Not a single man…

Each of your comments is valuable. Some have already resulted in several decisions, including:

  • to divide the Introduction into short chapters of less than 75 lines as in other parts of the book, in order to clarify and simplify the narrative;
  • to open the book with the Table of notions rather than with the Table of Contents so that one can see from the first pages what topics will be covered;
  • to add the following illustrations to the Prologue to make it clearer that its focus is the “links” that information objects weave between individuals, groups and communities, rather than information objects themselves.

One échography, one relationships network: figure showing that fetus Sarah's echography links her to her mother, and the latter to her doctor and hospital on one side, and through social media, the mother to her family, friends, colleages and contacts

Relationship supported by information: example of the petition. Here, a petition connects Sarah and other citizens (acting as petitioners) to a public authority (acting as the petitioned party). The relationship is the act of petition.

"Beyond Privacy" ProjectCommunicationsLab NotesLiving between the linesNotes

“Beyond Privacy” Project: Glossary

Provisional book cover: Title :

This post is about the “Beyond Privacy” Project: LIVING BETWEEN THE LINES information society through our personal information.

As this is an open work-in-progress book drafting project,

please do not hesitate to comment!

Every input is precious to help improve it.

Glossary

 

Information : The word receives quite different definition depending on the uses and the fields of practice. In this book, this word designates a material support for the conservation, communication and processing of knowledge or signals, particularly one those that give a form to an interpersonal relation.

"Beyond Privacy" ProjectCommunicationsLab NotesLiving between the linesNotes

“Beyond Privacy” Project: Bibliography

Provisional book cover: Title :

This post is about the “Beyond Privacy” Project: LIVING BETWEEN THE LINES information society through our personal information.

As this is an open work-in-progress book drafting project,

please do not hesitate to comment!

Every input is precious to help improve it.

Bibliography

Cross, R. C, and M. S Wheatland. “Modeling a Falling Slinky.” arXiv:1208.4629 (August 22, 2012). http://arxiv.org/abs/1208.4629

Floridi, Luciano. Information: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press,

Le Grand dictionnaire terminologique. Office de la langue française du Québec. http://www.gdt.oqlf.gouv.qc.ca/

Oxford English Dictionary Online. Oxford, United Kingdom. Oxford University Press. 2010. http://www.oed.com/

Trésor de la langue française informatisé. Analyse et traitement informatique de la langue française, Centre national de la recherche scientifique & Université Nancy-II. http://atilf.atilf.fr/

"Beyond Privacy" ProjectCommunicationsLab NotesLiving between the linesNotes

“Beyond Privacy” Project: Chapter on the Material Reality of Information

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Every input is precious to help improve it.

Chapter from Part One: Alignment: Objects Called “Information”

Material Strength

 

Digital information items are objects of which we entrust the handling to machines. Often microscopic, such information objects and handlings then can become invisible to us.

Many have claimed that we are witnessing a dematerialization of human activities.

Dematerialization of the economy? It is true that increasing shares of production and commerce consume less matter and energy. One share consists of “intellectual” services: marketing, research and development, consulting, training. Another share deals with digital products which may be transported electronically.

Dematerialization of money? Of finance? Or of information in general? Also true. Everywhere, paper is being replaced by powerful electronic media.

Unfortunately, many are those who thought that it was literal dematerialization. Complete disappearance of matter. Such dematerialization would imply that information items are immaterial entities. The huge Internet infrastructure would be a sort of intangible cloud. Some cyberspace would be developing in some parallel universe whose properties fall outside those of the physical world. State legislation would be practically unenforceable there. Information flows would be insensitive to national borders. Any ambition to control these flows would prove illusory. (more…)

"Beyond Privacy" ProjectCommunicationsLab NotesLiving between the linesNotes

“Beyond Privacy” Project: Chapter Defining “Information” by Using a Slinky

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Every input is precious to help improve it.

Chapter form Part One: Alignment: Objects Called “Information”

High Definition

 

The word “information” is part of our everyday language. But it means too many different things. A careful exploration demands that we first settle on a common definition.

Falling Slinky: Experiment showing that bottom end of a Slinky in free fall will float until the above coils come to it

Literally, to inform means “to give a form” to something. This was the sense of its 2000 years old Latin ancestor, informare. It was also used to say “to get an idea of” something or someone. (more…)

"Beyond Privacy" ProjectCommunicationsLab NotesLiving between the linesNotes

“Beyond Privacy” Project: Credits

Provisional book cover: Title :

This post is about the “Beyond Privacy” Project: LIVING BETWEEN THE LINES information society through our personal information.

As this is an open work-in-progress book drafting project,

please do not hesitate to comment!

Every input is precious to help improve it.

Writing and Illustration

Pierrot Péladeau

First Reading

Pierrette Lavoie

Comments

Karine Clément

Anne-Marie Théoret

Valerie Steeves

Andrée Côté

Monique Chartrand

Cynthia Chassigneux

Hélène Bergeron

Alain Bellemare

Icons Libraries

PIP-L (Picture of Interpersonal Information Process – Language) by Caroline Cyr

PICOL (PIctorial COmmunication Language) by Melih Bilgil

Images

Wood types photograph used for book project’s cover: “gothic san serif lower case – FUTURA!” by Kyle Van Horn

Cover of Voyager Golden Disk: courtesy of NASA / JPL – Cal Tech

Hosting of  pierrot-peladeau.net web site 

Michel Dumais

Promotion of the Work-in-Progress 

Robert Ellis Smith, Privacy Journal

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"Beyond Privacy" ProjectCommunicationsLab NotesLiving between the linesNotes

“Beyond Privacy” Project: The Prologue (on the education that our kids deserve)

Provisional book cover: Title :

This post is about the “Beyond Privacy” Project: LIVING BETWEEN THE LINES information society through our personal information.

As this is an open work-in-progress book drafting project,

please do not hesitate to comment!

Every input is precious to help improve it.

Prologue

Life Lines

 

Let us imagine Sarah, a teenager who muses about how numerous information items link her to others. Shouldn’t we offer ourselves and our kids such an education?

 

My births

My foetal life was a pampered one. My mother closely watched over it. Both she and I enjoyed the support of caring relatives as well as of modern medicine. Thus long before my birth, my mother’s medical records already had stored up about me more than a hundred lines of text. Notes about observations, test results, diagnostic findings, prescriptions and medical procedures. Not to mention the thousands of lines of ultrasound images. Images of me which my Mom proudly displayed on her social networks’ pages. Sites that also displayed hundreds of lines of encouragements and advices from the people she meets there as well as from her obstetrician.

One échography, one relationships network: figure showing that fetus Sarah's echography links her to her mother, and the latter to her doctor and hospital on one side, and through social media, the mother to her family, friends, colleages and contacts

Barely out of the womb, the confirmation of my vital signs resulted in the opening of my very own medical record. I must admit that, for a time, it was identified by the bland first name of… “Baby”. Still, it was through the creation of this file that I finally became a “patient” in my own right, even after months of medical follow up.

My noisy and exhausting delivery was quickly followed by another birth. A more subtle but decisive one: that of a new citizen. It took place by writing of a few lines on a form for vital statistics registration. A seemingly minor gesture. But this act immediately made me the bearer of many legal rights and benefits – and later of obligations – among this society where accidents of history and genetics made me entered life.

And from “Baby”, I officially became “Sarah”.

(more…)

"Beyond Privacy" ProjectCommunicationsLab NotesLiving between the linesNotes

“Beyond Privacy” Project: the ‘Introduction’ chapter

Provisional book cover: Title :

This post is about the “Beyond Privacy” Project: LIVING BETWEEN THE LINES information society through our personal information.

As this is an open work-in-progress book drafting project,

please do not hesitate to comment!

Every input is precious to help improve it.

Introduction

In Lines Societies

 

Digital technologies are transforming our world a little more each day. Enough to say that we are experiencing a revolution. Understanding information and its roles leads us to a familiar and ancestral invention: writing.

 

Information, you say?

The computer has been invented some three quarters of a century ago. Its countless electronic avatars have scattered everywhere, even in our pockets. Mankind has accelerated its production of “bytes” and “data” in ever greater astronomical quantities. Still, how many of us do understand these “information” objects? How many perceive the different roles that humans can make them play? How many know how can we use them ourselves? How can we influence the uses that others make of them when they affect us? The education of our Sarah in the Prologue, despite its obvious necessity, is still largely fiction. Yet, this book demonstrates how little it takes to lay the foundations of it.

This is because the presence of information items surfaces more and more in the open. Day after day, all around us. The growing popularity of digital applications and social networks multiply our opportunities for learning and experimentation. And our culture already offers us several keys for their understanding and their mastery. (more…)

"Beyond Privacy" ProjectCommunicationsLab NotesLiving between the linesNotes

“Beyond Privacy” Project: Table of Notions

Provisional book cover: Title :

This post is about the “Beyond Privacy” Project: LIVING BETWEEN THE LINES information society through our personal information.

As this is an open work-in-progress book drafting project,

please do not hesitate to comment!

Every input is precious to help improve it.

Table of Notions

General statement:

Personal information items play growing roles

in the lives of individuals, groups and societies

“Information items”:

Information items are physical objects

These objects support knowledge and signals, facilitating their storage through time, communication through space and their handling to produce new information items

An operation performed on information items to produce some new information items (results) can also generate other information elements necessary for its completion and others to describe it

Structured storage of information objects can multiply them

Communication of information items often produces new ones (more…)

"Beyond Privacy" ProjectCommunicationsLab NotesLiving between the linesNotes

“Beyond Privacy” Project: the Table of Content

"Beyond Privacy" ProjectCommunicationsLab NotesLiving between the linesNotes

Launch of the Open Work-in-Progress “Beyond Privacy” Project

LIVING BETWEEN THE LINES

information society through our personal information

Invitation

Couverture provisoire du livre : Titre : « Vivre entre les lignes : la société de l'information à travers nos information personnelles » - Mentions : « Par delà la vie privée - Livre en chantier ouvert »
This post launch the open work-in-progress drafting of a book  intended for a broad audience: as much curious citizens as specialists in various fields and educators. Its aim: to help understand our information societies from an exploration of the closer reality of our own personal information. Its main challenge: to present useful, but often technical knowledge in clear and simple language. Hence the idea of an open work-in-progress.

The name of the project and the book’s working title: “Beyond Privacy” Project: LIVING BETWEEN THE LINES information society through our personal information.

Chapters will be published as and when they are produced. You are invited to comment. Your comments and suggestions are valuable. They will help improve the discussed contents and the way they are communicated. (more…)

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