Notes de laboNotesNotes de lecture

Note de lecture : Capacités comme critères d’évaluation de système d’information

Ces Notes de lectures citent et commentent le texte dans sa langue originelle, ici l’anglais.

I am used to consider criteria such as human rights, exercises of power, effects on one or many lives, as well as informatics and society implications for doing social assessment of interpersonal information systems.

After hearing a lecture from Martha Nussbaum, I consider that it would be useful to also include consideration of capabilities. That would not provide brand new criteria, but certainly an additional angle to look at them.

« The capabilities approach » is « an outcome-oriented view that seeks to determine what basic principles, and adequate measure thereof, would fulfill a life of human dignity. » (Wikipedia, « Martha Nussbaum« , August 5, 2014)

Nussbaum identifies 10 core capabilities that, in her eyes, should be supported by all democracies:

  1. Life. Being able to live to the end of a human life of normal length; not dying prematurely, or before one’s life is so reduced as to be not worth living.
  2. Bodily Health. Being able to have good health, including reproductive health; to be adequately nourished; to have adequate shelter.
  3. Bodily Integrity. Being able to move freely from place to place; to be secure against violent assault, including sexual assault and domestic violence; having opportunities for sexual satisfaction and for choice in matters of reproduction.
  4. Senses, Imagination, and Thought. Being able to use the senses, to imagine, think, and reason—and to do these things in a « truly human » way, a way informed and cultivated by an adequate education, including, but by no means limited to, literacy and basic mathematical and scientific training. Being able to use imagination and thought in connection with experiencing and producing works and events of one’s own choice, religious, literary, musical, and so forth. Being able to use one’s mind in ways protected by guarantees of freedom of expression with respect to both political and artistic speech, and freedom of religious exercise. Being able to have pleasurable experiences and to avoid non-beneficial pain.
  5. Emotions. Being able to have attachments to things and people outside ourselves; to love those who love and care for us, to grieve at their absence; in general, to love, to grieve, to experience longing, gratitude, and justified anger. Not having one’s emotional development blighted by fear and anxiety. (Supporting this capability means supporting forms of human association that can be shown to be crucial in their development.)
  6. Practical Reason. Being able to form a conception of the good and to engage in critical reflection about the planning of one’s life. (This entails protection for the liberty of conscience and religious observance.)
  7. Affiliation.
    1. Being able to live with and toward others, to recognize and show concern for other humans, to engage in various forms of social interaction; to be able to imagine the situation of another. (Protecting this capability means protecting institutions that constitute and nourish such forms of affiliation, and also protecting the freedom of assembly and political speech.)
    2. Having the social bases of self-respect and non-humiliation; being able to be treated as a dignified being whose worth is equal to that of others. This entails provisions of non-discrimination on the basis of race, sex, sexual orientation, ethnicity, caste, religion, national origin and species.
  8. Other Species. Being able to live with concern for and in relation to animals, plants, and the world of nature.
  9. Play. Being able to laugh, to play, to enjoy recreational activities.
  10. Control over one’s Environment.
    1. Political. Being able to participate effectively in political choices that govern one’s life; having the right of political participation, protections of free speech and association.
    2. Material. Being able to hold property (both land and movable goods), and having property rights on an equal basis with others; having the right to seek employment on an equal basis with others; having the freedom from unwarranted search and seizure. In work, being able to work as a human, exercising practical reason and entering into meaningful relationships of mutual recognition with other workers. »

(Wikipedia, « Capability approach« , August 5, 2014)

This list of core capabilities is non exhaustive. Indeed, it can be enlarged.

For instance, outside welfare economics, one can add other capabilities that are pertinent to interpersonal information system, such as « privacy » as defined by Rohan Samarajiva as « the capability to implicitly or explicitly negotiate boundary conditions of social relations. This definition includes control of outflow of information that may be of strategic or aesthetic value to the person and control of inflow of information, including initiation of contact. » (Rohan Samarajiva, »Privacy in Electronic Public Space: Emerging Issues », Canadian Journal of Communication, North America, 19, Jan. 1994. Available at: <http://cjc-online.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/796/702>).

A capability standpoint also reveals that such information inflow and outflow are far from exhausting this basic definition. Some « interflow » should also be considered: how, for example, intermediaries such as the Facebooks or Googles screen how one can be in contact with other or not, and how they could engage or not once contact is made.

As well, a capability standpoint can include an informational variation on the Practical Reason core capabilities. That is the capabilities to get, produce, process information to serve one’s own personal or collective goal.

Beyond Privacy? / Par delà la vie privée ?

Les expériences totalitaires qui ont dévasté le XXe siècle visaient l’abolition de la vie privée par la surveillance et le fichage. Au point que l’idée de production et maniement d’informations personnelles devint indissociable de celle d’invasion de la vie privée.

Or, les maniements d’information supportant les relations interpersonnelles ne se réduisent pas à cette seule dimension. Non seulement la portion privée de nos vies est en cause, mais toutes leurs composantes sociales et publiques aussi. Non seulement le droit au respect de la vie privée, mais tous les droits et libertés de la personne!

Évaluer les maniements d’informations personnelles exige donc d’en examiner tous les rôles et toutes les implications, par delà la seule vie privée.

Par-delà la vie privée: ce que tout juriste devrait savoir sur les applications des technologies de l’information et des communications concernant les personnes physiques

Couverture-cequetoutjuriste«Par delà la vie privée : ce que tout juriste devrait savoir sur les applications des technologies de l’information et des communications concernant les personnes physiques», Actes de la XIVe Conférence des Juristes de l’État. Cowansville, Québec: Les Éditions Yvon Blais, 2000, 133-148.

Résumé

La présente communication s’organise autour d’un seul message : la nécessité de dépasser les analyses légales des applications des technologies de l’information et des communications (TIC) concernant des personnes physiques en fonction du seul droit au respect de la vie privée ; ou, en d’autres mots, la nécessité de voir que ces dispositifs s’inscrivent, par delà de cette notion, dans une réalité multidimensionnelle, souvent complexe. Ce texte présente donc des faits et des arguments au soutien d’une approche particulière des rapports entre le droit, d’une part, et les TIC, d’autre part. Cette approche est le fruit, autant de travaux empiriques réalisés sur le terrain que de réflexions historiques et théoriques. Une série de moyens propres à assurer une meilleure évaluation des projets d’applications TIC sera présentée.

Vivre entre les lignesNotes

J’évite les mots « vie privée » (et vous le devriez aussi)

D’un obstacle à la pensée sur nos rapports à travers le maniement d’informations

Tablette d'écriture cunéiformeNotion abordées : Les informations (notamment les informations personnelles) et l’informatique jouent des rôles croissants et multiples dans les moindres aspects de la vie des individus, des groupes et des sociétés

Je souhaite écrire ma propre lecture de l’enquête et des recommandations du Commissariat à la vie privée du Canada sur la gestion des informations personnelles par Facebook. Cependant, je me butais trop souvent sur les mots « vie privée » dans la documentation du Commissariat et les articles des médias et autres commentateurs. Trop pour ne pas publier au préalable le présent texte de mise en garde.

Depuis longtemps, je me méfie du terme « vie privée ». Il possède tant de significations différentes qu’il en devient un véritable obstacle à la communication. Plus grave encore, son emploi est devenu un automatisme chaque fois qu’il est question de maniement d’informations personnelles. Si bien qu’il constitue aujourd’hui un réel obstacle à l’exercice même de penser ces maniements, leurs rôles et leurs implications. Avec notamment comme conséquences, de nombreux échecs informatiques, sociaux, économiques et commerciaux. (suite…)

1 comment |
line
footer
Powered by WordPress | Designed by Elegant Themes